The arbequina is a variety of olive tree. The variety is native to the village of Arbeca, Lleida, in the region of Les Garrigues, which gave it its name.
This variety is considered one of the best in the world, both for its production and regularity and for the quality of its oil.
It is grown mainly in Camp de Tarragona, Urgell and Les Garrigues.
According to legend, the Duke of Medinaceli, who lived in the castle-palace of Arbeca, brought it from Palestine in the 17th century. The promise of one real for each olive tree planted (which in the end he did not keep) encouraged its cultivation throughout the region. Although there was already evidence of olive trees of the same type throughout the territory.
The arbequina olive is considered to be rustic, frost-resistant and adaptable to different climate and soil conditions. It has very low vigour and low resistance to chalky soil, adapts to poor soils and is resistant to cold.
Its relatively small canopy allows higher planting densities than other more vigorous crops. It is recognised as one of the best olive varieties for oil production.
Rustic, frost resistant and very adaptable to the conditions, the arbequina is one of the best varieties for obtaining oil.
It is a very productive variety. The ripening date is medium, from the first fortnight of November.
The fruits of the olive are small, spherical, symmetrical and are clustered.
They are black when ripe and have no lenticels on the skin of the fruit.
It is self-fertile. Its fruits do not ripen simultaneously, and it has a medium resistance to detachment.